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  1. Much like his contemporary Arthur Tudor, Prince Juan was considered to be a future King who would solve all problems. He would united a divided country, like his father and mother had done, his marriage would tie him to important European allies, and he would be raised with an education suitable to mould him into one of his countries greatest monarchs. Unfortunately, like Prince Arthur, it would fall apart all too soon.

  2. The arrival of a healthy male heir is an essential moment for any monarchy, but it's not always a guarantee. And for the Habsburgs it became a serious problem. 

    The birth of Balthasar Charles was particularly welcomed by his parents. King Philip IV of Spain had married Elisabeth of France, the daughter of King Henry IV and Marie de Medici, in 1615. Elisabeth had been just thirteen years old at the time, while Philip was 16, so the pair were probably forbidden from sleeping together until they had grown up a bit. Their first child, a daughter named Maria Margaret, was born in 1621. Sadly she died two days later. 

  3. Born in August 1198, Alexander II became King of Scotland at the age of 16. Two years later he attempted to take advantage of the chaos caused in England by the revolt against King John, but after John's death led to a change in English leadership the Scots were forced to return home. The Treaty of Kingston was signed in 1217, and in the following years diplomatic efforts led to the still unmarried Alexander being given the hand of the young English princess Joan.

  4. King Manuel I of Portugal is known as “Manuel the Fortunate” because he wasn't supposed to become King. He was the youngest of his parents nine children and the last of their six sons, but illness and murder conspired to leave him as the sole heir to both his parents lands and the family's claim to the Portuguese throne.