These badges show five of the key figures in the period of English history known as "The Anarchy". After the death of King Henry I of England his daughter Empess Matilda and her cousin Stephen fought for the throne. Stephen was supported by his wife Matilda of Boulogne, while his cousin was supported by her husband Geoffrey of Anjou.
In the end, Stephen kept the throne. But ultimately it was Empress Matilda that triumphed as circumstances forced Stephen to acknowledge her son Henry as his heir, which led to the young man becoming King Henry II.