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  1. Caroline Matilda was born into a court in mourning. Her father Frederick, Prince of Wales, had died four months earlier leaving his wife Princess Augusta a widow with nine children. The family had long been estranged from Frederick's father, King George II of England, but the Princes' death led to a cooling of tensions. Although George didn't like Augusta, and didn't like her reluctance to take part in court activities, she was generally left to raise her children as she saw fit.

    For Caroline Matilda this meant a more secluded life than her father might have encouraged. Augusta hated what she felt was the corruption of the English court under her father in law, and was determined to keep her children innocent of the ways of the world. Caroline was clever enough to make the most of her education, and left her schoolroom with three languages under her belt, and the family's talent for music (her eldest brother George played several instruments).

    In January 1765 Caroline Matilda was officially engaged to Crown Prince Christian of Denmark. Christian's mother was Frederick's youngest sister, making the betrothed couple first cousins. They were married in 1766, by which point Christian's father had died and he had gone from Crown Prince to King Christian VII of Denmark. In 1 May 1767 Caroline Matilda had her coronation in Copenhagen. Caroline Matilda

    The marriage was unhappy from the start. Christian, who was already showing signs of mental illness, was resentful that he had been “forced” to marry by his court, and refused to consummate the marriage for months. Instead he took multiple mistresses, until he was finally convinced of the need to have an heir to the throne. Crown Prince Frederick was born in January 1768, and Christian returned his attention to other women. Caroline on the other hand now had a reason to fight for her place at court. She was disliked by her husband's courtiers and favourites, the Danish court was far stricter than the English one and her behaviour had scandalised the nobles. Like her brother George, Caroline was fond of walking and could be spotted strolling through the streets of Copenhagen, rather than taking the carriage that was traditionally used by Queens.

    Christian's favourites did not endear themselves to her. Her favourite Lady in Waiting was dismissed, and although she rejected the first replacement she eventually had to accept the second choice. She was also rumoured to have had an affair with an actor in late 1768, but it's believed he was the lover of another of her Ladies in Waiting. Christian had embarked on a tour of Europe, and had the actor exiled on his return. Several other Ladies in the court were believed to be having affairs, and were accused of encouraging the Queen's “immoral” behaviour.

    In reality it appears that Caroline's first and only affair was with the Royal Physician, Johann Struensee. Christian returned to Copenhagen in 1769 with Struensee in tow. Although Christian's mental health was getting worse, Struensee was generally able to placate him and keep him relatively calm.

    Caroline originally disliked him. He encouraged the King to take a new mistress, but after this failed he turned to trying to improve the relationship between the King and Queen. He also helped treat the Queen when she suffered from dropsy, and successfully innoculated the Crown Prince against smallpox. Caroline and Struensee are believed to have been lovers from early 1770, although some in the court claimed they believed it started in late 1769. Wherever the King and Queen went, the Royal Physcian went with them. Working together Caroline and Struensee were able to have the King's malicious favourites banished from court. In December 1770 Struensee was a privy counsellor, and by the summer of 1771 he was given the same power as the King.

    In the following months Caroline's unpopularity increased as she supported her lover's attempts to reform the country. It wasn't helped by her behaviour, she reportedly made little attempt to hide her adoration for Struensee. She also caused further scandal by riding horseback dressed in men's clothing, and had a portrait made of her dressed in the uniform of her regiment. Her mother-in-law, King Christian's step-mother, led the opposition party at court, while Caroline formed her own group of followers.

    On 7 July 1771 Caroline gave birth to her second child. The baby girl was named Louise Augusta, and was named a Princess of Norway and Denmark. But the belief at court was that the baby should be called Louise Augusta Struensee. Despite the question of her paternity baby Louise would grow up close to her older brother Frederick, and was an accepted part of the Danish court.

    The baby's birth seems to have been the last straw for the Dowager Queen. Rumours circulated at Caroline and her lover wanted to remove Christian from power and rule the country themselves. After another courtier gave the Dowager Queen evidence (now believed to be fraudulent) that the couple were plotting against the King she decided to act. In January 1772 Struensee and his supporters were arrested. The same night Caroline Matilda was captured with her daughter and removed to Kronborg Castle, where they were kept under close guard.

    On 6 April 1772 the marriage of Caroline Matilda and King Christian was dissolved. Both she and Struensee had admitted their affair after weeks of pressure. Struensee was executed on 28 April, while Caroline Matilda's brother King George III of Great Britain had already begun negotiations with the Danish court for his sister. It was agreed that Denmark would return her dowry and provide a pension, and she would be able to retain her title. On 3 May she left Kronborg Castle, her final destination was Celle Castle in Hanover. Her children had to be left behind in Denmark and never saw her again.

    Caroline Matilda led a life of retirement in Celle. She was visited by friends and family, including her sister Augusta. She had a library and a small theatre, and regularly donated to charities relating to orphans and children from poor families. She died suddenly from scarlet fever on 10 May 1775 aged just 23. At the time of her death she was involved in a plot to return her to Denmark to act as Regent for her young son, but her untimely death put a stop to it. She was buried near her great-grandmother, Sophia Dorothea, another woman exiled from her court and children.

    Her son became King Frederick VI of Denmark, getting his revenge on his grandmother by siezing power and dimissing her ministers when he came of age. He was close to his sister, despite the questions about her paternity, and kept her as one of his most trusted advisers for the rest of his life.

     


    Last month's Unlucky Princess was a double; Eleanor of Woodstock and Joan of the Tower!

     

  2. At his birth Eustace of Boulogne couldn't have hoped to become anything more than a nobleman, like his father and grandfather. He was due to inherit his mother's county of Boulogne, Stephen himself was a younger brother who had married the heiress Matilda of Boulogne, and had taken title Count of Boulogne through her. As the eldest son Eustace could look forward to becoming Count Eustace of Boulogne in the future. But in infancy he gained a new title and new future – Prince Eustace, heir to the English throne. King Stephen

    On the death of King Henry I of England, Eustace's father Stephen (pictured right) rushed to claim the vacant throne. There had been many years of confusion over whether Henry would name his nephew Stephen (Stephen's mother was Henry's sister Adela), or his daughter Empress Matilda. But when he died Matilda was in Normandy, heavily pregnant and unable to travel far. Stephen seized the opportunity, in much the same way that Henry had many years ago, and secured the treasury and the throne within weeks of the King's death.

    What followed was a period of civil war known as The Anarchy, and as he grew up Eustace had a role to play helping his father. He attended his mother's coronation in 1136 and settled with the court in England, where two of his younger siblings died in relatively quick succession. In 1137 he was in France, where he paid homage to King Louis for his father's lands in Normandy, on King Stephen's behalf. He was back in France again in 1140, this time with his mother, for his betrothal to Louis' daughter Constance. Queen Matilda had played a role in negotiating the marriage, it was only right that she attend the ceremony.

    In 1147 Eustace was officially knighted by his father, and began to play a greater role in the civil war, taking part in battles and sieges around the country. When his rival, Henry Plantagenet, arrived to campaign in England in 1149 Eustace was ready. The pair and their forces were engaged in several small skirmishes around the south west of England, and Eustace reportedly even came close to capturing his rival, but Henry managed to elude him. People were looking to Henry as the next king, as the son of Empress Matilda and grandson of Henry I it was felt that he had a stronger claim than Eustace. They didn't want a woman ruling, but they didn't mind her son.

    To shore up support and legitimacy for their son, Stephen and Matilda tried to arrange for him to be crowned as King while Stephen was alive. This was common in France, but not in England. Even then it might have been possible were it not for the Pope forbidding the Archbishop of Canterbury from carrying out the ceremony. The best Eustace could get an oath swearing ceremony in 1152, during which a number of nobles gave their allegiance to their future king. Several weeks later Queen Matilda died suddenly at Headingham Castle, and Stephen and Eustace both lost their greatest supporter.

    Eustace himself didn't have long to live either. In August 1153 he led a small party on a raid at Bury St Edmunds, where they stole a selection of treasure and other goods from the churches. On the journey home Eustace suddenly took ill and died. It was considered by some at the time to be divine vengeance for his attack on the churches, others claimed that he died of rage after being consistently refused his own coronation. Whatever the cause his death led to King Stephen effectively giving up. Although he had another son still living he came to an agreement with Henry that he would now be his heir.

    Eustace was buried near his mother in Faversham in Kent. The family tomb was desecrated during the Reformation, and his remains were lost.

     


    Last month's Almost King was Arthur of Brittany!

     

  3. If you want to look at an unhappy Royal family in history, then you don’t have to look much further than King Edward II and Queen Isabella. A marriage that was supposed to seal peace between England and France eventually led to a rebellion against the King. While their son Edward III certainly had a happy marriage, the same cannot be said for his two sisters.

    Eleanor of Woodstock Eleanor-of-Woodstock

    The elder of the two princesses, Eleanor of Woodstock was born in June 1318. Eleanor’s childhood featured growing estrangement between her parents, followed by her mother leading a rebellion against her father. She was nine years old when her brother was formally crowned and became part of their mother’s puppet government, and she spent a number of years in the care of various noble families in England. 

    Eleanor’s future was the subject of a lot of negotiation as the years went by. The kingdoms of Castile and France were both interested in the possibility of her as a Royal bride. Negotiations with Castile floundered over the dowry negotiations, Prince Alfonso ended up making an unhappy marriage with a Portuguese princess. For the French an English princess would have been a suitable wife for the heir to the throne, Prince John. But Eleanor was pipped at the post by the kingdom of Bohemia, who offered a princess in return for a military alliance.

    Instead Eleanor had to settle for an older widower. Count Reinoud II of Guelders had been widowed in 1329, his wife Sophia had left him with four daughters but no sons. Eleanor’s marriage was arranged by her brother’s mother-in-law, who was helping expand English influence beyond the normal spheres. Eleanor was given a magnificent trousseau and was dispatched overseas. The marriage took place in May 1332 in the town of Nijmegen (part of modern Netherlands).

    Sadly for the young princess it was not a happy marriage. Eleanor gave birth to the required heir and spare; Reinoud was born in 1333, and Edward in 1336. But she was much younger than her husband, barely two years older than her eldest stepdaughter. Coming from an unstable family and unhappy childhood Eleanor reportedly clung to her husband, who eventually grew bored and dismissed her from court. He even tried to have the marriage annulled by declaring she had leprosy, but in a rare show of spirit Eleanor reportedly returned to court wearing nothing by a thin shift. With no signs of leprosy the annulment was never going to be successful.

    Reinoud died suddenly in 1343 after falling from his horse. His and Eleanor’s eldest son was only nine years old at the time. Eleanor made a bid to become Regent in her son’s name, but ultimately failed in 1344. After falling out with her son her lands were confiscated and she eventually died in poverty in a convent. She was only 36 years old.

    Joan of the Tower Joan-of-the-Tower

    Unlike her older sister, there was very little debate in Joan’s future marriage. Her name comes from her place of birth, political insecurities at the time meant that Isabella had to have her confinement in the secure walls of the Tower of London. Political considerations would dominate her life, her marriage was arranged as part of the Treaty of Northampton between England and Scotland in 1328. Joan was promptly sent north in the summer, on 17 July 1328 the seven year old princess married the four year old heir to the Scottish throne - Prince David. 

    The two children were raised together in the Scottish court. David’s early reign was marked by the passing of various regents, before he was forced to flee to France in 1334 after a rebellion led by Edward Balliol (with the assistance of Joan’s brother, Edward III of England). David was only eleven, Joan was nearly thirteen. They were offered a home in Chateau Gaillard (which had been built by King Richard I) but very little is known about their time in France.

    The Royal couple were allowed to return to Scotland in 1341. Joan was now twenty years old and reportedly a beautiful young woman. But David returned to Scotland with his mistress in tow, leaving Joan somewhat sidelined in her own court. They lasted in Scotland for five years until David was captured by the English at the Battle of Neville's Cross. He was taken to London and imprisoned in the Tower of London and Joan followed. But while her husband was a captive, albeit one held in a certain amount of luxury, Joan was an honoured guest. She resided with her mother, was given a pension by her brother, and received frequent visits from her sister-in-law Queen Philippa and her nieces and nephews.

    In many ways Joan's story ends better than most unlucky princesses. Her marriage was a sham, and David had consistently shown his disdain for her. After his release and return to Scotland in 1357 he quickly took up another mistress. Joan by this point had had enough and returned to her brother's court where she was once again a beloved member of the family. She accompanied Isabella on her final pilgrimage and nursed her during her last illness. She didn't live for too many more years, dying in 1362 aged 41. She was buried at London's Greyfriars Church near her mother.

    David remarried after becoming a widower. His second wife also failed to conceive any children, and on his death the Scottish throne went to the Stuart line.


     

    Last month's Unlucky Princess was Maria Josepha of Bavaria.

    If you like the Unlucky Princess series you might like my eBook series - 30 Women in History.

  4. A potential King Arthur of England, young Arthur of Brittany was the son of Duke Geoffrey of Brittany and his wife Constance, and thus had Royal blood in his veins. Geoffrey was the son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, while Constance was descended from Scottish kings. Geoffrey died a few months before Arthur's birth, leaving Constance to protect both their son and the Duchy of Brittany. As the grandson of Henry II, baby Arthur was also a potential claimant to the English throne.

    Of course Arthur's position in relation to England would have been made highly unlikely if King Richard I had had a son or two. But Richard's marriage to Berengaria of Navarre was childless. However Arthur's claim was unfavourable as he was being raised in Brittany by his mother Constance, who was disliked by Eleanor of Aquitaine and who may have been hostile towards her husband's family. Arthur-of-Brittany

    Regardless of Constance's mutual dislike of her in-laws, Arthur was still a nephew of the King of England. Richard even arranged a marriage for Arthur to the daughter of Tancred of Sicily, which came to nothing but does show the influence that the extended family could have over the boy's life. Arthur's older sister Eleanor was also briefly considered as a potential bride for the heir to the French throne as part of an alliance between Richard and King Philip, but again it never came to fruition.

    After several years considering naming John as his heir, or naming Arthur, King Richard began to lean more towards Arthur. In 1196 he named Arthur officially and requested that the boy be sent to him so he could be raised by his Plantagenet family. But on the journey Arthur's mother Constance was captured and imprisoned by her husband, and Arthur was secretly taken to the French court and placed in the custody of King Philip.

    Despite being raised as a French pawn it may have been that Arthur would have remained as Richard's heir, were it not for his uncle's untimely death. Richard was shot by an arrow during a siege in 1199 and the wound soon turned gangrenous. With his mother at his side as witness Richard named his brother John as heir on his deathbed, not Arthur. It may be that Eleanor persuaded him to do so, or it might have been down to the fact that John was a grown man while Arthur was only twelve years old. Richard's deathbed wishes were not enough to stop King Philip, who immediately proclaimed Arthur as the real heir to the Angevin Empire.

    Anjou, Maine and Touraine all declared for Arthur, leading to war in the region as John and Eleanor fought to hang on to the counties. Arthur witnessed several sieges on his behalf, but as John started to gain the upper hand he was moved back to Paris. King Philip treated the boy as a treasured companion for his son and heir Louis and had him educated to the same high standard. But Arthur wasn't the grateful subject that Philip believed him to be. Concern grew that Philip intend to claim Anjou, Maine and Touraine for himself and exclude Arthur from gaining control when he came of age. Instead Arthur fled to the court of King John, once more accompanied by his mother Constance.

    It was not a situation that ended well. Suspicious of John as well as Philip, Arthur and Constance never saw John. When their intermediaries failed to negotiate a favourable audience with John they fled straight back to a very angry Philip. Arthur was virtually excluded from the peace talks that followed. It was agreed that he would do homage to John for Brittany, and Philip and John settled various territorial claims between them, as well as arranging a marriage between one of John's nieces in Castile and Philip's eldest son Louis. Arthur would shine in the tournament thrown to celebrate the marriage a year later.

    Arthur's greatest ally, his mother Constance, died in September 1201 in childbirth, possibly after delivering twins. In recent years Constance had leaned more towards Arthur's paternal family, but without her advice and influence he moved back towards the French court. Encouraged by King Philip he led an invasion against Poitou. His forces even managed to besiege Eleanor of Aquitaine in the Château de Mirabeau in July 1202, but John quickly marched on Mirabeau. Arthur and his forces were taken unawares. Eleanor was freed and Arthur was captured and imprisoned at the Château de Falaise.

    Arthur's ultimate fate is unknown, all that is known is that he was never seen again after 1203. One account is that King John ordered for Arthur to be physically mutilated in some way, either castrated or blinded, and that after his captors refused to carry the act out they killed in fear of what John would do to them for disobeying him. Other accounts state that John himself killed the young man in a drunken rage and had the body thrown in to the Seine. Like the Princes in the Tower several centuries later Arthur's final resting place was never revealed. His older sister Eleanor, also reportedly captured at Mirabeau, would live in to her late fifties and died in captivity in England during the reign of Henry III.

     


    Last month's Almost King was Henry the Young King.

     

  5. If you don't get along with your mother-in-law then spare a thought for poor Maria Josepha of Bavaria. Not only did she get an overbearing mother-in-law in the form of Empress Maria Theresa, but she also had a husband who spent most of their marriage showing his complete disdain for her.

    Maria Josepha was born on 20 March 1739 in Munich, the last of seven children, although only four had survived infancy. At the age of four she lost her older sister Theresa Benedicta, followed by her father Charles when she was just six years old. Her mother Maria Amalia was a first cousin to Maria Theresa, and it was on her behalf that Charles, who was Holy Roman Emperor, had claimed the Habsburg lands during the War of Austrian Succession. After Charles' death Maria Amalia persuaded her son to make peace with Maria Theresa, and it was Maria Theresa's husband Francis who was elected the new Holy Roman Emperor. Maria-Josepha-of-Bavaria

    Maria Josepha's mother lived in retirement after her husband's death, and she may have taken her youngest child with her for company. In 1756 Maria Amalia died, leaving her seventeen year old daughter an orphan. As her two surviving older sisters were married she most likely resided at the court of her brother, Maximilian III of Bavaria. Both sisters had married relatively late, in their early twenties, so it should not be too surprising that Maria Josepha was still unmarried at the age of twenty six, when a marriage was proposition arrived from the court of Empress Maria Theresa.

    The potential bridegroom was her eldest son Joseph. His first wife Isabella of Parma had died 1763 after contracting smallpox while pregnant. Joseph's only living child was a daughter, and the Empress was determined that he would have a male heir. A uniting of the two families might prevent war in the future, and Maria Josepha was the only unmarried daughter left from that side of the family. Her thoughts on the match are unknown, but Joseph was particularly reluctant. He had adored Isabella and continued to mourn her. He had no interest in remarrying, unless it was to her sister Maria Luisa (who declined the suggestion, not only was she already betrothed but she had no interest in taking her sister's place).

    However Maria Theresa was not an indulgent parent. She wanted an heir from Joseph, and so he needed a wife. After a proxy ceremony two weeks previously the couple were formally married in Vienna on 25 January 1765. Although Maria Josepha was, at first, very happy with her husband and fell in love with him quickly her feelings were not reciprocated. In one of his many letters Joseph complained that she had bad teeth, acne, and was too short. In another letter, this time to his former father-in-law, Joseph complained that he had nothing in common with his new wife and would never be able to love her.

    Maria Josepha herself was very aware that her husband didn't care for her, in many ways he did nothing to hide it. In fact Joseph managed to arrange his days so that he only saw his wife briefly in the morning when he woke up, at mealtimes when they shared a table, and in the evening when they went to bed. The rest of the court may have taken their cue from Joseph as his wife does not seem to have settled in well, she was mostly isolated and deeply unhappy. She was reportedly a very amiable young woman, but poorly educated (surprising given that of her two surviving sisters, one was a noted musician and the other a diplomat). Joseph wanted a mirror image of Isabella; beatiful, well educated and witty. Maria Josepha would never live up to the idealised portrait of the beloved first wife.

    Eight months after the wedding Maria Josepha became Holy Roman Empress when her husband's father died. However the reins of power were still very firmly in the hands of Maria Theresa, and she wasn't ready to relinquish anything to her son, let alone her daughter-in-law. Had Maria Josepha managed to produce the desired heir then things might have improved, but she and Joseph do not appear to have conceived a child during their few years together.

    In May 1767, just over two years after her wedding day, Maria Josepha contracted smallpox and died. Joseph stayed well away from his second wife and didn't even visit her on her deathbed, although Maria Theresa visited her (and caught smallpox as a result, however she survived).

    Maria Josepha's tomb can today be found in the Imperial crypt, as a Holy Roman Empress she was buried with the rest of the family who had cared so little for her in life.


    Last month's Unlucky Princess was Juana la Beltraneja.

    If you like the Unlucky Princess series you might like my eBook series - 30 Women in History.